Museum of the Origins of Man
TWO-FACED HUMAN HEAD IN POST-PALEOLITHIC SCULPTURE
Fig. 5A1) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents
a two-faced divinity like Giano, El-Kronos, Argon, Borea, and so on. The hat is
much beautiful, like in all the sculptures of evolued civilizations.
Fig. 5A2) Anthropomorphic lithic sculptures. Small idols in alabaster
or stone. By scholars of ancient religions, they are put in relation with the
celestial or solar character of the divinity adored in the temple, and could
have votive meaning. These small idols many-eyes enclose traditions of several
divinities. The many eyes, like the many arms, in a same sculpture, re-enter in
" bifrontism (two-faced) ". The types that have beeen found are four: male;
female; couple, male and female with a single mouth, and the little idol with
three eyes. Interesting the hats, similar to the first hats known in sculpture
in the Paleolithic.
Size: cm. 5 on average.
Origin: temple di Brak, Tell
Brak, Valley of Khabur, northern Syria.
Dating: IV millenium
Fig. 5A3) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a man with
two-faced head, sitting between two rearing horses. It is called " dominating
God of the animals ". Two animals at the sides of the God, are a new recurrent
topic in the iconography of the first urban civilizations.
Size: height cm.
30, widht cm. 38, thickness max cm. 17.
Origin: Villaricos, Spain.
Archaeological museum of Barcelona, Spain.
Fig. 5A4) Two-faced Anthropomorphic sculpture in marble. It represents
the bust of a man with three bearded heads. It represents the Gaulish God with
three heads. We can attribute style, and making, to the classic Greece. Its name
is unknown, as there are not been found inscriptions.
Size: height cm. 45
Origin: Condat, Dordogne, France.
Fig. 5A5) Anthropomorphic lithic sculpture (Drawing).It represents the
head of a bearded man, with three faces and two eyes.
It represents the
Gaulish God with three faces.
Size: perhaps cm. 50 approximately.
Origin: Reims, France.
Fig. 5A6) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture. It represents two
human heads beardless, and lacking in hairs, joined with look in opposite
direction; between the two heads, a small head lacking in the particulars of the
It represents a celtic-Gaulish God, in origin three-headed; then, for
cult reasons (as supported by scholars of this religion), one of the three head
has been abolished, but we see trace of it in reduced in size
Size: height cm. 30 approximately.
Mouths of the Rhone, France.
Museum Lapidaire of Marseilles, France.
Fig. 5A7) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a riding man
with three bearded heads; on the background several human figures. It represents
the rider God with three heads. In Ancient Thrace, the God had also two heads.
It is a solar God. In Bulgaria have been found hundreds of these steles.
Size: modest dimensions.
Origin: Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Fig. 5A8) Lithic sculpture in bas-relief. It represents a man with head
with three faces, large lips, and a woman and a man. It represents the God
three-headed and two divinities. The large lips have meant unknown, however, for
how much rare, they are present in the representations in Paleolithic,
Mesolithic, and protohistory.
Size: modest dimensions.
Fig. 5A9) Vase in painted ceramic. Scene of battle between a man and a
man with two-faced head, which represents Argon, God generally represented with
body strewed of eyes. Generally, this God has one bearded face, and the others
Fig. 5A10) Two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture in marble. It represents
two-faced Janus. This God has been represented in many ways: bearded, beardless,
with a bearded face and a beardless, with two old men, with two young people,
one old face and the other of young person, and with a remarkable variety of
types of styling of hairs and of beard.
Size: approximately to the natural.
Fig. 5A11) Drawing published in XVII century. It represents a man with
two-faced head; the wings, a rooster on the head. With one hand he is holding an
object not defined, while with the other hand he holds up a fish.
represents Wejopatis, prussian God of the wind.
From more than a century the
America had been conquered. The press was spreaded in Europe, but the
Christianity had not still conquered all Europe, as in some zones like Prussia
the two-faced Gods till existed. This is an ulterior testimony of how much the
religions have roots in the people.
According to the typology of the
sculptures of the Paleolithic, this God, having wings, can itself be considered
Origin: Prussia, Germany.
Fig. 5A12) Two-faced Angel holding a book with Christian subjects.
(Drawing). The sun, the symbolic moon, and other images are represented. The
angel has features of woman, and therefore he is beardless, while the head bound
together on the nape is bearded. One of the wings towards the sun is of bird,
while the wing behind the moon is of bat.
It has been possible to represent
all this religious symbology, for the technical medium that the drawing on paper
allows; what was impossible in lithic sculpture all round, but this complex
world of symbols, always has been present in the religion, with the word, like
Fig. 5A13) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture . It represents a
man sitting with two head joined for the nape, and look in opposite direction.
It represents two-faced January; it is associated to others 11 statues, and
everyone represents a month of the year.
Age: XIII century, a.D.
Fig. 5A14) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents a
man sitting with two head, and look in ahead. It represents " two-faced January
that warms himself at the fire ": in fact, little fires are represented at its
This sculpture is placed outside the Cathedral of Parma, and being
supported by the wall, probably has the two head in parallel, to the contrary of
other January (Janus) two-faced (Fig.
5A13) that is inside the Cathedral, and that has the two head joined for the
nape with look in opposite direction.
The presence in a Christian Cathedral
of two sculptures of two-faced Janus (one within and the other outside),
demonstrates that this divinity, even if was not in the cult of the Christians,
was still in the believes of the people. Otherwise, no allow by the priests to
Collocation: Cathedral of Parma, Parma, Italy.
Fig. 5A15) Anthropomorphic two-faced wooden sculpture. It represents
half human head of living, and half human head of defunct, that seems nearly a
skull. We do not know the meant of the opened wide mouth.
Size: height cm.
Origin: Central Africa.
Museum Royal of Central
Afrique, Tervuren, Belgium.
Fig. 5A16) Two-faced anthropomorphic wooden sculptures. It is one of
the many versions of the bifrontism (two-faced), where, rather than to be a body
and two heads, there are two heads joined for the nape, and two bodies joined
for the back. These two sculptures probably come from localities far one from
the other, as they represent two different varieties of Homo sapiens sapiens;
one of low stature and one of high stature. Also the styles are different. Men
of low stature are represented with a realistic style, nearly caricaturale,
while men of high stature are realized in an elegant style, that aims to
lengthen the head, and to reduce some particulars of the face, and to abolish
eyes. Moreover, they have the body decorated with recordings. The religion is in
common to the two sculptures.
In photography, there is also a sculpture in
wood, that represents a phallus, cult object.
Size: approximately mt. 1.30
with the stool.
Origin: Central Africa.
Museum Royal of the Central
Afrique, Tervuren, Belgium.
Fig. 5A17) Anthropomorphic lithic two-faced sculpture. It represents
Triloknath, divinity currently in the cult.
Collocation: Triloknath Temple,
Age: XVI century a.D.
Fig. 5A18) Anthropomorphic two-faced lithic sculpture. It represents
God Agni with two heads, that symbolizes "domestic and sacrificale fire".
Age: II century B.C.
Museum Guinet, Paris.
Fig. 5A19) Anthropomorphic wooden two-faced sculpture. It is a mask for
dance, for cult rituals.
Origin: Ekoi, Region of the Cross River, Nigeria.
Fig. 5A20) Anthropomorphic two-faced sculpture in limestone. It
represents a man with two heads, that represents an "ancestor ". This is a local
aspect of transformation of the religion from a cult to an other, maintaining
equal the typology of the representation, that is the anthropomorphic idol with
However, it is not excluded, that also in the Paleolithic, there
was a cult of the ancestors, connected to similar representations.
Museum fur Volkerkunde, Hamburgh, Germany.
Fig. 5A21) Two-faced anthropomorphic sculpture (particular). Human
figure with three heads, and six arms. It represents Ashura, one of the eight
guardians of Buddha, and smaller divinity.
Origin: Japan. Nara period, 734
Fig. 5A22) Anthropomorphic
two-faced sculpture in bronze ( Drawing).
It represents a man with a
head with four faces.
It is a male divinity.
Size: height cm. 17.3.
Age:1800 - 1700 B.C.
Oriental Institute, University of
Fig. 5A23) Ceramic two-facedvanthropomorphic sculpture . It represents
a naked woman with two heads. It represents a divinity connected to the cult of
the fecundity. This sculpture is presented again (Fig. 8A9)in section regarding
" venus " and goddesses mothers.
This type of sculpture has been found in
remarkable amount, constituted from several types of heads, beyond this type:
one head with two faces; two heads assembled in an only head with look ahead,
and various types of hairdos or hats, some of which published in this site.
Size: height from cm. 6 to cm. 13, on average cm. 10.
Dating: 1100 - 500 B.C.